Europa Games and Military History

Tag: sources

Sources for German Military History Online

Note: This months link leads to german books and sources exclusively, so you might want to skip this link tip if you cant read german.

Markus Maria Hof is a historian and publicist, and he found the time to scrounge for books related to german and especially Prussian history. And since Prussia shaped more than a century of European military history, his findings are a treasure of sources on that topic, all of them available online. Due to copyright only old books end up at, so you’ll miss out on the most recent scientific consensus, which in a lot of cases has significantly evolved since the days when writing military history was done to instruct and motivate soldiers for the next war. However, some of the works reach a level of detail unsurpassed since.

A last grain of salt: Hofs political writings place him firmly on the conservative side of conservatism (to put it mildly), elsewhere on his blog he extensively discusses Spengler and Carl Schmidt, and his language as well as choice of topics echoes the national conservatives of the Twenties and Thirties. Still – I appreciate the bibliographical work, and reading Spengler and Nietzsche in my twens didn’t stop me from developing emphathy.

Bibliographies of (german) books on Prussian and German history online


Second Balkan War

Greek War of Independence

A History of the Greek Revolution – Turkish Rule

Wikipedia article on Greece during WWI

The Abdication of King Constantine I of Greece
First World – Memoirs & Diaries – The Abdication of King Constantine I of Greece

Greece and the Allies 1914-1922, G. F. Abbott,1922, Methuen & Co Ltd

Lecture 14: Greek nationalism, the “Megale Idea” and Venizelism to 1923, Steven W Sowards, 1996

Arnold J. Toynbee and Kenneth P. Kirkwood, Turkey, 1926, London: Ernest Benn, p. 94
Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)

Wikipedia article on the Greco-Turkish War
Greco-Turkish War (1919–22) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Greco-Turkish War 1920-22, Peter Kincaid Jensen, International Journal of Middle East Studies, (Cambridge University Press, 1979), Volume 10, Issue 04, pp 553-565

GREEK BARBARISM – Part 2 – Greek Atrocities and Massacres of Turks During Greek Occupation of Izmir and Adjoining Territories, 1919!topic/talk.politics.european-union/4O-d_06W2JM
Turkey and Greece: A History of Colliding

Cyprus: A Place of Arms (London: Praeger, 1966), chapter 6

The political and diplomatic Background to the Metaxas dictatorship 1935-36, Harry Cliadakis.

“Neither Fascist nor Authoritarian: The 4th of August Regime in Greece (1936-1941) and the Dynamics of Fascistisation in 1930s Europe”., Aristotle Kallis
Neither fascist nor authoritarian – Research Portal | Lancaster University

King George II article on Wikipedia

Greece becomes part of the British sphere of influence

The American College of Greece – Art (Ioannis Metaxas)

Great Britain, House of Commons PARLIAMENTARY DEBATES, Vol. 346, col. 13.

The Political and Diplomatic Background to the Metaxas Dictatorship, 1935-36, Harry Cliadakis, Journal of Contemporary History, SAGE, Vol 14 (1979), p117-38

Ioannis Metaxas
[Comments on page by Metaxas’ grand-daughter Ioanna Phoca-Metaxa]
Translation of memoirs from Italian Ambassador to Greece Emanuele Grazzi

THE CHRONICLES OF A CAREER – Sir Anthony Eden, LEWIS BROAD, Hutchinson & Co 1955, p152-154.

The Battle of Greece

Battle of Greece

The German Campaign in the Balkans (Spring 1941) a model of crisis planning, General Major Burkhart Mueller-Hillebrand, Office of the Chief of Military History, 1952
The German Campaign in the Balkans 1941, by Mueller-Hillebrand

MEMOIRS – Winston Churchill (abridged), Houghton Mifflin 1959, Chapter 18 vol 2, pages 420-433, 792, 797
Operation Harling COMBATSIM.COM: Operation Harling: Destruction of the Gorgopotamos Rail Bridge, 1942

Axis Occupation of Greece during World War II

THE GREEK CIVIL WAR 1943 – 1949,  Major Jeffrey C. Kotora, USMC,  1985, Marine Corps Command and Staff College

Command Decisions, Chapter 10, Richard M Leighton, United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 70-7. OVERLORD Versus the Mediterranean

Ideology, calculation, and improvisation: spheres of influence and Soviet foreign policy 1939–1945, Geoffrey Roberts, Review of International Studies (1999), 25, p655–673

Strategic Deception Behind the Normandy Invasion
Major Jon S. Wendell, United States Air Force

Deceit on D-Day Outtakes from Victory and Deceit, A. Nofi – Military Book Reviews

Bulgaria and the Aegean Sea (1941-1944) Military- Political aspects, Dimiter Yonchev (in Bulgarian)

Sofia was bombed? : Bulgaria’s Forgotten War with the Allies, Irina Gigova

U.S. State Department [Eizenstat] Report on Allied Relations and Negotiations With Turkey

The Republic of Turkey & Nazi Germany

World War II: Turkey
World War II — Turkey

The Duke of Edinburgh

Greek civil war
Greek Civil War

General Reading
The Greek Dilemma War and Aftermath, William Hardy McNeil, J.B. Lippincott Company, 1947

28th October 1940: “OXI” (NO) DAY – the day Greece –

The CARL digital library

A recurring theme of pages listed under these bookmarks seems to be that their design somehow harks back to the late nineties, but their content is much richer than a first look would surmise. CARL contines this trend: benhind an awkard and slow interface lingers a host of historical documents. CARL is short for “Combined Arms Research Library” and describes the library on Fort Leavenworth, which is in turn not only one of the oldest forts in the US still operational, but also counts the United States Army Combined Arms Center amongst its tenants. Fort Leavenworth prides itself to be the “intellectual center” of the US Army, and the sheer volume of documents available online certainly dwarf the Army’s Historical Center (

Amongst the documents hosted are essays and thesises prepared by the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC), but also a lot of operational reports, old field manuals and all kinds of other documents related to the military history of the US. In these the second world war features prominently, as is to be expected. Especially the After Action Reports from the divisional and corps level make an interesting reading for EUROPA afficinados.

The cumbersome interface of the website has been mentioned already, although the collections are searchible, the structure is unintuitive and purly organisatorical, the website responds slow and makes it close to impossible to get an overview about the hosted documents. An overhaul has been announced for some time now, but even now the uniqueness and historical wealth of the documents found place CARL amongst the first websites relevant for modern military history.

Date: October 19th, 2012