HISTORICAL CAMPAIGN SCENARIO

INVASION OF THE PHILIPPINES
DEC II 41 to MAY II 42

INITIAL FORCES, DEC II 41

Initial Conditions.

Japanese-Owned Territory: The Japan, Ryukyus, Formosa, Central China, South China, South China (Hainan), Tonkin, Cochin-china, Palau, Yap, and Marianas holding boxes.

Note: The Okinawa Holding Box is now the Ryukyus Holding Box with a north section – Amami Oshima, and a south section – Okinawa. Amami Oshima is 3 NPs and 12 air MPs to Okinawa, while moving between the map and Okinawa remains unchanged.

Accumulated Production:
Air RPs: 6 (IJA); 10 (IJN).

Miscellaneous.

Army HQ:

Activation (WoR, Rule 37I) 1941-45: 3
ZOI radius (WoR, Rule 14C) 1941-45: 3

Imperial Japanese Army:

14th Army.

Ryukyus (Holding Box):

Amami Oshima:

1x4-6-8* Mtn Lt Inf III                                            16-20
1x2-4-4 Static X                                                      16HC
1x0-1-6 hv AA [II]                   AA=1                      60Y
2 Rsc Pts

Formosa Holding Box:

Formosa:
1x 6 Army HQ                         AA=1                      14G
1x18-22-8* Mtn Lt inf XX                                     48
1x4-6-6* Lt Inf III                                                     16-9
1x2-4-4 Static X                                                      48HC
1x2-8 Tank [II]                                                         7r
1x1-8 Amph Tank [II]                                             4r
1x1-8 lt Tank [II]                                                     A
1x1-8 Pol [II]                                                            14G
5x1-2-6 Eng [II]                                                       3Dr, 10Dr, 21Dr, 26Dr, 28Dr
1x1-2-5 Cons III                                                      A
1x0-1-6 RR Eng III                                                  8
2x1-6 Art [II]                                                            8DYr, 9DYr
1x1-2-8 mot AT [II]                                                 A
1x0-1-8 mot hv AA II              AA=1                      40Y
3x0-1-8 hv AA II                      AA=1                      45Y, 47Y, 48Y
2x 8 mot TC (1 RE)                                                 16-Div, 48-Div
8 Rsc Pts
Maru-1, Maru-2                      0/TA/2                   1-0/E2/5 Dai-1, Dai-2     0/LC/G  0/E/2

Pescadore Islands: Mako:
1x8-12-8^ Mtn Lt Inf [XX]                                    65HD [unsupported]
1x3-2-8 Art III                                                          1Y
1x2-1-8 Siege Mtr II                                                15J

Palau Holding Box:

1x4-6-8* Mtn Lt Inf III                                            16-33
1x1-2-6 Eng [II]                                                       6Dr
1 Rsc Pt
Maru-10, Maru-11                  0/TA/2                   1-0/E2/5
Dai-10, Dai-11                        0/LC/G                  0/E/2

16th Army:

Japan Holding Box:

Honshu: Southern Operations Strategic Reserve:
1x15-19-6 Lt Inf XX               2
1x2-4-4 Static X                      43HC
1x1-2-5 Cons III                      B

Kyushu: Southern Operations Strategic Reserve:

2x4-6-8* Mtn Lt Inf XX          56-113, 56-148
1x3-2-6 Art III                          18Y

Note: There are additional units available under the 16th Army but those units are directly assigned to the 16th Army for operations against Java.

Palau Holding box:

1x4-6-8* Mtn Lt Inf III                                            56-146 [Sakaguchi]
1x2-4-4 Static X                                                      56HC
1x1-2-6 Eng [II]                                                       2Dr
1x0-1-8 hv AA II                      A=1                        44Y

5th Air Division.

Formosa Holding Box:

4x 3F4                                      0/15                       Ki-27b
1x 3B4                                      2-3/U/21               Ki-21-Ic
3x 1LB3                                    1/17                       Ki-30
2x 2NLB3                                 1/22                       Ki-48-I
1x 0T2                                      0/23                       Ki-57-I
1x 0T2                                      0/10                       Ki-59
10th Air Unit:
1x 1A2                                      1/12                       Ki-36
1x 2D2                                     2/10                       Ki-51

Formosa Strategic Reserve:

1x 0NT2                                   0/L/23                   Ki-57
2x 0NT2                                   0/10                       Ki-59
1x 0NT2                                   0/21                       MC-21
1x1-5 Para-Cmdo II                2TR

Note: The code L on a type T means it can airdrop paras; when using more than one air transport, only one of the code Ls need be included to air drop. All other type Ts may not air drop.

Miscellaneous.

16th XX Breakdown Box:
1x13-19-8* Mtn Lt Inf XX                                     16

65HD X Breakdown Box:
3x2-4-8 Mtn Lt Inf III              65HD-122, 65HD-141, 65HD-142 [two btns each]

Available Breakdown Components:

2x6-8-8*/5-7-8 Mtn Lt Inf III 48-1For, 48-2For
1x4-6-8*/3-5-8 Mtn Lt Inf III 48-47
3x4-6-6*/3-5-6 Lt Inf III                                         2-4, 2-16, 2-19
2x1-0-8 Recon II                                                     16-Div, 48-Div
2x1-3-8* Mtn Art III                                                16-22, 48-48
1x2-3-6 Art III                                                          2-2
Note: When using the 1x1-0-8 Recon II, place a [(-1) hit marker] on the division or on any one regiment of the division.

Imperial Japanese Navy:

3rd Fleet.

Ryukyus Holding Box:

Amami Oshima:
1x2-5-4 Baseforce X             AA=1                      1T
GB-1, GB-2                              5/DG/D                 1-0/4

Okinawa:
1x0-2-0 Baseforce III              RyuT

Formosa Holding Box:
1x 1T2                                      0/L/55*                  G3M2-L
2x2-5-4 Baseforce X              AA= 1                     2T, 31T
1x1-5 Para II                                                            3Yoko
1x1-6 SNLF I                                                           A/SNLF
S. Maru                                     5/VS/2                   1-0/F/7
1x F1M2                                  3F2                         1/SF/7
Ashigara                                   19/CA/3                2-4/8
Maya                                         19/CA/3                2-2/9
Kuma, Naka, Natori                5/DC/1                  0-2/M/9
Asas-1                                       17/DD/A               6-16/9
Shirat-1                                    14/DD/B               5-16/9
Muts-1                                      10/DD/C               3-12/M/8
Kami-1                                      10/DD/C               3-6/8
W7-1, W13-1                          9/DM/E                 3-0/M/5
Tomo-1                                    7/DT/E                  2-2/7
GB-3                                         5/DG/D                 1-0/4
Hayatoma                                0/AO/3                  0-0/O14/5

Palau Holding Box:

1x 4F3                                      0/15                       A5M4
1x 2B2                                      3-4/VB/53            H6K4
2x 1NT2                                   0/L/33                   L3Y-1
2x2-5-4 Baseforce X              AA=1                      30T, 32T
2x2-3-6 SNLF II                                                       1Kure, 2Sase
1x1-2-5 Para II                                                         1Yoko
1x1-6 SNLF I                                                           B/SNLF
5x0-1-5 Cons II                                                       1,3,5,6,9
1x0-1-5 Cons II                                                       2Oil [historically to Tarakan oil center; may be used as a cons unit]
Ryujo                                        3/VL/2                   2-0/C3/7
1x 4F3                                      0/C/15                   A5M4
1x 2A2                                      2-2/VC/19            B5N2
Chitose                                     2/VS/2                   1-0/VC/7
1x 3F2                                      1/SF/7                   F1M2
Mizuho                                     2/VS/2                   2-0/F/6
1x 3F2                                      1/SF/7                   F1M2
Haguro, Myoko, Nachi           19/CA/3                2-4/8
Jintsu, Nagara                          5/DC/1                  0-2/M/9
Kage-1, Kage-2                        17/DD/A               6-16/9
Shirat-2                                    14/DD/B               5-16/9
Maru-1 [CX]                            5/DG/E                  1-0/4
ISY-1                                         6/DM/C                 1-0/M6/4
3 Mine Pts
W17-1                                      9/DM/E                 3-0/M/5
Maru-19, Maru-20,
Maru-21                                   0/TA/2                   1-0/E2/5
Dai-19, Dai-20,
Dai-21                                      0/LC/G                  0/E/2
Maru-12, Maru-16                  0/TR/2                   0-0/E/4

DN: A note on mining: the IJN used the mines to seal the straits on the eastern side of the Philippines and Davao.

Palau Garrison:
1x 4F3                                      0/15                       A5M4
1x 1A2                                      1/SF/21                 E13A1 (IJN)
1x0-2-4 Baseforce III                                              3T
1x2-3-6 SNLF II                                                       5Sase
1x0-2-5 Nvl Trps II                                                  6Yoko
1x0-1-4 hv AA II                      AA=1                      3T
1x M-13                                   5/DM/E                 1-0/M3/4

11th Air Fleet.

Formosa Holding Box:

(21st & 23nd Air Flotillas)
3x 7F5                                      0/23                       A6M2

DN: These three air units are carrier trained, but were never used in that role.

3x 7F5                                      0/17                       A6M2
6x 4NB2                                   2-4/VU/45            G4M1
3x 3NB2                                   2-3/VU/32            G3M2
1x 2B2 (aborted)                     3-4/VB/53            H6K4
1x 1T2                                      0/55*                     G3M2-L

Formosa Garrison:
1x 4F3                                      0/15                       A5M4

Miscellaneous.

Sas SNLF III Breakdown Box:
1x5-6-6 SNLF III                                                      Sase

Kure SNLF III Breakdown Box:
1x5-6-6 SNLF III                                                      Kure

SNLF II Breakdown Box:
1x2-3-6 SNLF II                                                       1Sase

DN: The SNLF IIIs in Glory will have IDs of 1Comb thru 8Comb (1 thru 6 at start) which correspond to the Japanese SNLF ‘regiments’. These regts were sometimes given names, such as the Kure SNLF, but in Grand Glory the units will have numbers so that any combination of battalions may be the components. The SNLF II Breakdown Box allows the Japanese player (historical) to break down SNLF IIs into half components. This practice was used both in the Philippines (1Sase) and against Wake/New Ireland (2Maiz).

PRODUCTION

No change.
CONDITIONAL REINFORCEMENTS

No change, except for changes listed below.

#2) Japanese Engineers
Units to which this applies:
Add,
4x1-2-6 Eng [II]                                                       6Dr, 10Dr, 26Dr, 28Dr
#3) SNLF Paratroops
Change,
Imperial Japanese Army
to
Imperial Japanese Navy
Remove,
1x5-3-5 Para III…Yok.
Ignore any reference to 5-3-6 Para III and 1-5 Para…2Yoko & 4Yok.
Remove,
1x1-2-5 Para II…2Yoko and 1x1-5 Para II…4Yoko
DN: The 2Yoko and 4Yoko are not para-trained.

#7) Upgrading Units
Ignore any reference to the listed upgrades.
DN: The 65R is a six battalion brigade with no artillery, and though its six sister brigades in Japan were converted to divisions, the 65R never was as it was diverted to the Pacific as separate parts. (Later in the war a 65th Div was raised independently.) Also, these brigades are not actually reserve units but instead are referred to by the Japanese as infantry groups (HD). These units were holding units for the excess trained infantry from the training command.

The 4th Division is changed in the upgraded OB and is shown with its normal strength, but is missing 3 strength points.
The Japanese have a number of heavy artillery regiments that are small units (btns-sized). Their artillery regiments are normally either, 16 or 24 heavy guns – 105mm or 150mm. The small “regiments” are normally 8 guns – 105mm. These units did not change/upgrade as this is the IJAs standard TO&E.

#8) The Japanese Imperial General HQs Strategic Reserve
Add,
Any forces listed in the upgraded OB as ‘reserve ‘are considered part of this CR.

Replace,
Listed items that are part of Imperial Japanese Navy.

With,
Available in Southeast Holding Box:
2x 7F5                                      0/17                       A6M2

DN: These two air units are part of the Yamada Naval Air Group (Kok), 22 Naval Flotillas, based in Cochin-china. Note that there are no land-based A6M2s available in Japan at this time. Also, only the A6M2s of the Tainan Kok on Formosa were upgraded to the new range

Available at Hainan Holding Box:
Ignore. Including ’assembly’.

DN: The 2Yoko is not a para unit, but it is available as a SNLF btn. Historically it invaded western Borneo – 1x1-6 SNLF…2Yoko. The 4Yoko is not available in TDDH as it is part of the Garrison of Hainan and it is in its naval guard mode. In Glory, SNLF IIs may convert to naval guard units (and back). The 17 range Zeros will begin upgrading to a 23 range from the MAR I 42 turn in the campaign OB.

New

#9) Baseforces
Baseforce (port construction) brigades may break down as listed below:
1x0-2-4 Baseforce III                                              anyT
1x1-2-5 Nvl Trps II                                                  anyT
1x0-1-4 hv AA II                      AA=1                      anyT

Available:
4x0-2-4 Baseforce III…1T, 2T, 30T, 31T, 32T
4x1-2-5 Nvl Trps II…1T, 2T, 30T, 31T, 32T
4x0-1-4 hv AA II                      AA=1…2T, 3T, 30T, 31T, 32T

DN: The 3T has no parent brigade as it has no naval guard unit. Instead the 6Yoko served in that role.

Miscellaneous.

1-ABREVIATIONS AND NAMES

Japanese:

Imperial Japanese Army:
Add,
G                                   gun                                      [army]

HD                                hohei  dan                          [infantry group]

KT                                 keibi tai                               [guard unit]

SK                                 sempaku kohei                  [shipping engineers]

DN: Additional:
1-A5M4. The A5M4 (Claude-II) has its range augmented as its long range includes a total of 490 liters of fuel, with a 160 liter drop tank.  Now, with 330 liters of on-board fuel, it has a range of 658 miles (1092 KM+/-), resulting in a ratio of fuel use of 1.99 liters/mile. The additional fuel provides for a 32% increase in range, or 490 liters multiplied by 1.99 ratio, equals 975 miles [975 divided by 64=15]. In addition, there were also attachments on the wings for two 133 L drop tanks ca. 1941.
[JACAR Ref. C01004536600 “Type 97 fighter…”]

REGULAR REINFORCEMENTS

Note: All reinforcement entries remain unchanged except as listed below.

DEC II 41

Imperial Japanese Navy:

Transfer to East(Wake Island):
1x Chitose
1x F1M2

DEC III 41

Imperial Japanese Army:

Formosa Holding Box:
Maru-3 thru Maru-9               0/TA/2                   1-0/E2/5
Dai-3 thru Dai-9                      0/LC/G                  0/E/2
Remove Sh. Maru

Imperial Japanese Navy:

Formosa Holding Box:
Maru-14, Maru-15                  0/TA/2                   1-0/E2/5
Dai-14, Dai-15,                       0/LC/G                  0/E/2
Maru-13, Maru-17,
Maru-18                                   0/TR/2                   0-0/E2/4

DEC IV 41

Imperial Japanese Army:

Formosa Holding Box (Arrive from Japan):
Ignore entry for 65R and 1x2-6 Mort II…2.
2x2-4-4 Static X                      61HC, 63HC

Hong Kong Holding Box (Arrive from 23rd Army):
1x2-1-8 Siege Mtr II                2J

Brunei Holding Box (Arrive from South Army West Wing):
1x1-2-6* Lt Inf II                      K3 {C-124} [Watanabe]

Brunei Holding Box (South Army West Wing):
2x1-2-6* Lt Inf II                      K1,K2 {A-124, B-124}

Imperial Japanese Navy:

Palau Holding Box (Return from Wake Island):
1x Chitose
1x F1M2

Brunei Holding Box (South Army West Wing):
1x1-6 SNLF II                                                          2Yoko
1x0-1-5 Cons II                                                       4

JAN I 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Hong Kong Holding Box (Transfer South Army West Wing):
1x13-19-8* Mtn Lt inf XX     38

Note: The division may be ‘purchased’ this turn only as it has been reassigned to the Sumatra, Java, and Ceram ops.

Available Breakdown Components: Remove:
Any components of 38th Division if div has not been purchased.

Hong Kong Holding Box (Arrive from 23rd Army):
1x +6 Art [XX]                         AA=1                      1HS
1x4-2-6 Siege Art [II]                                              1DJr+
1x0-1-8 Mtn Art II                                                   20D
1x 1A2                                      1/12                       Ki-36
1x 2NLB3                                 1/22                       Ki-48-I

Available for Assembly:
Remove,
1x15-10-6 Art [XX]…1HS

Add,
Note: (Glory) Place artillery components in 1HS Breakdown Box and place the 1HS counter on map; 1HS counter: ½ RE size, no HE; adds 6 artillery strength points to attack/defense strength when stacked with artillery units – a total of 4 REs of artillery may be absorbed by the 1HS Art HQ, treating the HQ and artillery units as a single unit.

JAN II 42

Imperial Japanese Navy:

Transfer South (South Army West Wing):
Ryujo                                        3/VL/2                   2-0/C3/7
1x 4F3                                      0/C/15                   A5M4
1x 2A2                                      2-2/VC/19            B5N2
Ashigara                                   19/CA/3                2-4/8
Maya                                         19/CA/3                2-2/9
Naka, Natori                            5/DC/1                  0-2/M/9
Asas-1                                       17/DD/A               6-16/9
Shirat-1                                    14/DD/B               5-16/9
Muts-1                                      10/DD/C               3-12/M/8

JAN III 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

JAPAN Holding Box (Transfer South Army West Wing):
1x15-19-6 Lt Inf XX               2

Transfer to South:
1x 0NT2                                   0/L/23                   Ki-57
2x 0T2                                      0/10                       Ki-59
1x 0T2                                      0/24                       MC-21
1x4-6-8* Mtn Lt Inf III                                            56-146
1x1-5 Para-Cmdo II                                                2TR
1x1-8 Amph Tank [II]                                             4r
1x1-2-8 mot AT [II]                                                 A
5x1-2-6 Eng [II]                       3Dr, 6Dr, 10Dr, 26Dr, 28Dr
2x0-1-8 hv AA II                      AA-1                       45Y, 48Y
Maru-4 thru Maru-11             0/TA/2                   1-0/E2/5
Dai-4 thru Dai-11                   0/LC/G                  0/E/2

Available Breakdown Components: Remove:

Any components of 2nd Division.

Imperial Japanese Navy:

Formosa Garrison, Release:
1x 4F3                                      0/15                       A5M4

Palau Garrison, Release:
1x 4F3                                      0/15                       A5M4

Transfer to South:
3x 7F5                                      0/23                       A6M2
3x 7F5                                      0/17                       A6M2
1x 4F3                                      0/15                       A5M4
3x 4NB2                                   2-4/VU/45            G4M1
2x 3NB2                                   2-3/VU/32            G3M2
1x 2B2                                      3-4/VB/53            H6K4
1x 1T2                                      0/L/55*                  G3M2-L
2x 1NT2                                   0/L/33                   L3Y-1
8 ARPs
2x2-5-4 Baseforce X              AA=1                      1T,2T
4x2-3-6 SNLF II                                                       1Kure, 2Kure, 1Sase, 2Sase
1x1-2-5 Para II                                                         1Yok
1x1-5 Para II                                                            3Yoko
4x0-1-5 Cons II                                                       3,5,6,9
1x0-1-5 Cons II                                                       2Oil
Maru-1                                     5/VS/2                   1-0/F/7
1x 3F2                                      1/SF/7                   F1M2
Chitose                                     2/VS/2                   1-0/VC/7
1x 3F2                                      1/SF/7                   F1M2
Mizuho                                     2/VS/2                   2-0/F/6
1x 3F2                                      1/SF/7                   F1M2
Haguro, Myoko, Nachi           19/CA/3                2-4/8
Jintsu, Nagara                          5/DC/1                  0-2/M/9
Kage-1, Kage-2                        17/DD/A               6-16/9
Kami-1                                      10/DD/C               3-6/8
W7-1, W13-1                          9/DM/E                 3-0/M/5
ISY-1                                         6/DM/C                 1-0/M6/4

Withdraw:
2x5-6-6 SNLF III                      Kure, Sase

JAN IV 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Convert: 1x 8 mot TC (1 RE)…48-Div                   to:
3x 8 mot TC (1 RE)                 48-Div/A, 48-Div/B, 48-Div/C

Transfer to South:
4x 3F4                                      0/15                       Ki-27b
1x 3B4                                      2-3/U/21               Ki-21-Ic
1x 1LB3                                    1/13                       Ki-30
1x 2NLB3                                 1/22                       Ki-48-I
1x 2D2                                     2/10                       Ki-51
1x 0T2                                      0/23                       Ki-57-I
4 ARPs
1x18-22-8* Mtn Lt Inf XX                                     48
1x1-8 lt Tank [II]                                                     A
1x0-1-8 mot hv AA II              AA=1                      40Y
1x0-1-8 hv II                            AA=1                      44Y
3x 8 mot TC (1 RE)                                                 48-Div/A, 48-Div/B, 48-Div/C

Available Breakdown Components: Remove:
2x6-8-8*/5-7-8 Mtn Lt Inf III 48-1For, 48-2For
1x4-6-8*/3-5-8 Mtn Lt Inf III 48-47
1x1-3-8* Mtn Art III                                                48-148

Imperial Japanese Navy:

Transfer to South:
Maru-14 thru Maru-15, Dai-14 thru Dai-15
Maru-16, Maru-18

FEB I 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Transfer to South:
3x2-4-4 Static X                                                      43HC, 48HC, 56HC
1x1-2-5 Cons [III]                                                    B

Transfer East (Rabaul):
1x0-1-8 hv AA II                      AA=1                      47Y

FEB II 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Central China Holding Box (Release from Southern Operations Strategic Reserve):
1x16-19-6 Lt Inf XX                                               4
1x (-3) hit marker                                                     any
1x 8 mot TC (1 RE)                                                 4-Div

Available Breakdown Components: Add:
3x4-6-6*/3-5-6 Lt Inf III                                         4-8, 4-37, 4-61
1x3-6 Art III                                                              4-4
1x1-0-8 Recon II                                                     4-4

FEB III

Imperial Japanese Army:

Convert: 1x Ki-36                    to:
1x 2D2                                     2/10                       Ki-51

FEB IV

Imperial Japanese Army:

Tonkin Holding Box (Release from Garrison):
1x3-5-8 Mtn Lt Inf III                                              21-62
1x1-3-8* Mtn Art III                                                21-51

MAR I 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Singapore Holding Box (Arrive from South Army West Wing):
1x2-8 Tank [II]                                                         2r
1x1-2-6 Eng [II]                                                       23Dr
1x1-2-8* Mtn Art III                                                3D
1x1-2-6 Mtr II                                                          3C
1x2-1-6 hv Siege Mtr II                                          14DJ
2 Rsc Pts

MAR II 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Formosa Holding Box (Arrive from Japan):
8 inf RPs

French Indo-china Holding Box (Arrive from Burma):
2x 3B3                                      2-3/U/17               Ki-21-Ib
2 ARPs

Formosa Holding Box (Arrive from South Korea):
2x 2NLB3                                 1/22                       Ki-48-I

Imperial Japanese Navy:

Singapore Holding Box (Arrive from South Army West Wing):
1x 7F5                                      0/17                       A6M2
2x 3NB2                                   2-3/VU/32            G3M2
1x 4NB2                                   2-3/VU45              G4M1
1x 2A2                                      2-1/V/19               B5N2 [land-based]
2 ARPs
Note: Reuse previous transferred counters.

MAR III 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Formosa Holding Box (Arrive from Japan):
8 inf RPs

Brunei Holding Box (Arrive from South Army West Wing):
2x1-2-6* Lt Inf III                                                     K1, K2 {124}

‘K’ Breakdown Box:
1x4-6-6* Lt Inf III                                                     124 [Kawaguchi]

MAR IV 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Singapore Holding box (Arrive from South Army West Wing):
1x4-6-8* Mtn Lt Inf III                                            41 [Kawamura]

APR I 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Singapore Holding Box (Arrive from South Army West Wing):
2x 3B4                                      2-3/U/21               Ki-21-Ic
1x 2NLB3                                 1/22                       Ki-48-I

Transfer to Japan:
1x2-8 Tank [II]                         2r

APR III 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Japan Holding Box (Transfer to Burma):
2x4-6-6* Lt Inf III                                                     56-113, 56-148
Note: The 56-113 and/or the 56-148 may be in play, in this case, transfer.

MAY I 42

Imperial Japanese Army:

Singapore Holding Box (Arrive from South Army West Wing):
1x4-6-6* Lt Inf III                                                     2-4