The following essays illustrate actors, battles and events from the time period which the Europa games deal with. While there is no overarching editorial guideline, we nevertheless believe these essays can contribute to a better understanding of some aspects of one of the most violent phases in human history.

Italian Troops at the Battle of Guadalajara

The Consequences of Italian Intervention in the Spanish Civil War

Essay by Brian R. Sullivan, 2004

A thorough assessment of  italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War from 1936-39 and how it shaped the Second World War, from driving Mussolini into the unholy alliance with Hitler to draining the stores of the Italian Army. [read more]

Anglo-Greek War Council, January 1941

Anglo-Greek Relations and British Strategy in the Aegean

Essay by , 2015

This article is a look at the British and Greek relationship before, during and after WW2, and to provide some historical context for the hypothetical Greece 44 scenario presented as a companion piece. {read more]

Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov

Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov

Essay by Alan Tibbetts, 2000

Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov, born of humble origins in 1900, rose to command the Soviet Air Forces through most of the Great Patriotic War. His excellence in command of the Red Air Force, encompassing the period of rebuilding through final victory, earned the awards and acclaim afforded him. As head of the Air Force, Novikov worked with many of the senior Soviet commanders. [read more]

2nd Battalion, 442nd RCT-1944-11-13

The Nisei – Japanese Americans who participated as US soldiers during the Second World War

Essay by Glen Davis, 2000

Members of the 100th and the 442nd “Nisei” regiments are some of the most decorated soldiers of World War II, and for good reason. Both of these units fought some of the bloodiest battles of the war and have the Purple Hearts to show for it. Often invited to take the most difficult ground at tremendous cost, the men of these units had a price to pay and they should rightfully have their story told. {read more]

German paratroopers dropping over Holland

Parachuting the Netherlands – Comparing German and Allied Air Drops in Holland, 1940 and 1944

Essay by Alan Tibbetts, 1999

This paper illustrates the use of airborne forces as part of combined arms operations. We will explore as examples the German attack on the Netherlands in 1940, and the Operation Market-Garden, conducted by the Allies in 1944. In both battles airborne forces were integral to an overall combined arms operational plan. {read more]

The Schlieffen Plan

How close did Germany come to executing the Schlieffen Plan successfully in August September 1914?

Essay by Wolfram Broszies, 1994

The German General Staff had been busy for years drafting plans how to solve the problem of a two-front war against Russia and France. The result was the Schlieffen Plan, an operation to encircle no less than the whole of the French Army by a swift thrust through Belgium. {read more]