The General, Volume 15, Number 6: Cover
Its superfluous to introduce anyone on this website to the General, unless you are new here, in which case let me point you towards the relevant information. The beautiful thing is that all or most of its issues (I haven’t checked yet) have been uploaded to archive.org, so you can now reminicence in the days of tactics past, and if you are not sure where to start looking, Boardgamegeek has a complete index of all issues of The General.
The General at Archive.org
For this Link credit goes to Peter Page from the fantastic Yahoo group “TO&E”, which is to my knowledge the best place in the internet to search and inquire sources and information about the organisation, structure and the equipment of any modern army (“modern” being used here in the classic sense of “after the medival ages”). The TO/E group not only shares news and updates about armies around the world, but also is able to point you towards archival records and rare books available only in selected libraries.
In this case, someone pointed out a small treasure trove of digitalized documents, regulations and TO/E information mostily about the Belgian Army between the wars and up to 1940. The website is heavy on equipment and weapons and their history, but together with a small but carefully selected collection of images the authors manage to create a solid picture of the state of the Belgian Army up to the Second World War. Google Translate is only marginally helpful, since the website seems rather old and still uses frames, but the content makes it well worth a visit!
This fifty volume series covers all areas of New Zealand’s involvement in the Second World War, from detailed accounts of particular battalions, to the political and economic background and consequences, to full accounts of particular episodes and campaigns. This series was first published as part of the Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War, produced under the auspices of the War History Branch of the Department of Internal Affairs.
Air Force and Navy
The recent news that Richard Hedrick, the owner of Sturmpanzer.com plans to discontinue the site as more than enough reason to point your attention to this trasure of research material. Nearly as old as the General Staff, Sturmpanzer owes its existance to a much nobler cause: scientific research. From its inception, the website has been tool as well as display of historical reasearch, only superficially centered around the German assault tanks based on the Tiger chassis, the “Sturmbär”.
Pretty quickly the content broadened into archival and printed sources. However, Sturmpanzers main treasure trove are the extensive PDF catalogues of all things World War two contained in the National Archives in Washington, and a vast amount of German TO/E-Data, usually in the original form of the KStN. KStN is german and short for Kriegsstärkenachweis, which I would translate to “war/mobilisation strength rooster”. Before and During Second World War they served as the basic inventory and structure information of any german unit, and their continuous updates reflect the German Armys response to the requirements of war.
Last but not least, in the past years the research blog has been another rich source of Data, Insights and thoughts about – mostly – the german Army in World War Two. I highly reccomend a visit before its taken offline.
Date: August 23rd, 2017
The transcribed name of the official Japanese history of the Second World War is “Senshi Sosho”. Its a monumental work, covering virtually all aspects of the war except the Japanese war crimes. The Senshi Sosho totals 102 volumes that consist of 34 volumes on the Imperial General Headquarters, 37 volumes on the Army, 21 volumes on the Navy, nine volumes on the aerial war the Army and one volume of chronology. Each volume has 600 pages on the average.
Sadly, so far only excerpts have been translated, for example an excerpt from volumes 14 and 28 found here.
List of Volumes:
1 Advance into Malaya. (1966)
2 Occupation of Philippines. (1966)
3 Occupation of Dutch East Indies. (1967)
4 Ichi-go Operation (pt. 1): Campaign in Honan (China). (1968)
5 Occupation of.Burma. (1967)
6 Army Operations in Central Pacific (pt. 1): Before the Loss of the Mariana Islands. (1967)
7 Tobu Nyuginia homen rikugun koku sakusen: Army Air Operations on the Eastern New Guinea Front. (1967)
8 Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial HQ (pt. 1): To August 1942. (1967)
9 Industrial Mobilization of War Supply Production (1): Program. (1967)
10 Hawai sakusen: Hawaii Operation. (1967)
11 Army Operations in Okinawa Area. (1968)
12 Marianas oki kaisen: Sea Battles off the Marianas. (1968)
13 Army Operations in Central Pacific (pt. 2): Peleliu, Anguar and Iwo-Jima. (1967)
14 Minami Taiheiyo rikugun sakusen: Pooruto Moresubi – Ga shima shoki sakusen (pt. 1): Army Operations in the South Pacific: Port Moresby to the First Phase of Guadalcanal (pt. 1). (1968)
15 Imphal Operation: Defense of Burma. (1968)
16 Ichi-go Operation (pt. 2): Campaign in Hunan (China). (1967)
17 Okinawa homen kaigun sakusen: Okinawa Area Naval Operations. (1968).
18 Hokushi no chiansen (pt.1): The security fights in North China
19 Hondo boku sakusen: Homeland Air Defense Operations. (1969)
20 Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial HQ (pt. 2): To August 1942. (1969)
21 Army Operations in Northern Pacific Area (pt. 1): Loss of Attu. (1968)
22 Seibu Nyugineya homan rikugun koku sakusen: Army Air Force Operations on the Western New Guinea Front. (1969)
23 Army Operations North of Australia. (1969)
24 Philippines-Marei hoomen kaigun shinkoo sakusen: Philippines-Malay Area Naval Attack Operations. (1969)
25 The Irrawaddy Campaign: Collapse of the Defense of Burma. (1969)
26 N.E.I.-Bengaru wan hoomen kaigun shinkoo sakusen: N.E.I.-Bengal Bay Area Naval Attack Operations. (1969)
27 Kwantung Army (pt. 1): Military Disposition Against USSR and Nomonhan Incident. (1969)
28 Minami taiheiyoo rikugun sakusen: Gadarukanaru – Buna sakusen (pt. 2): Army Operations in the South Pacific: Guadalcanal – Buna Operations (pt. 2). (1968)
29 Hokutoo hoomen kaigun sakusen: Northeast Area Naval Operations. (1969)
30 Ichi-go Operation (pt. 3): Campaign in Kwangsi (China)
31 Kaigun Gunsembi (pt. 1): The Navy’s Armaments Program (pt. 1): Up to November 1941. (1969)
32 Defeat on Burma Front and Defense of Indo-China Peninsula. (1969)
33 Industrial Mobilization of War Supply Production (pt. 2): Execution. (1970)
34 The Army Air Force’s Drive to South Pacific Area. (1970)
35 Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial HQ (pt. 3): To August 1942. (1970)
36 Army Air Operations in Okinawa, Formosa and Iwo-Jima. (1970)
37 Kaigun Sho-Go sakusen (pt. 1): Taiwan oki kokusen made: Naval Sho-Go Operations (pt. 1): Up to Air Battle off Taiwan. (1970)
38 Chuubu taiheiyoo hoomen kaigun sakusen (pt. 1): Central Pacific Naval Operations (pt. 1): Before May 1942. (1970)
39 Daihonei kaigunbu – rengoo kantai (pt. 4): Imperial General Headquarters – Combined Fleet (pt. 4). (1970).
40 Minami Taiheiyo rikugun sakusen: Munda Saramoa (pt. 3): Army Operations in the South Pacific: Munda Salamaua (pt. 3). (1970)
41 Shogo rikugun sakusen: Reite kessen (pt. 1): Sho-go Ground Operations: The Decisive Battle of Leyte (1). (1971)
42 Operations by China Expeditionary HQ in 1945 (1): To March 1945. (1971)
43 Midooei kaisen: Midway Sea Battle. (1971)
44 Operations in the Northern Pacific (2): Kuriles, Sakhalin and Hokkaido. (1971)
45 Conduct of Navy Operations by Imperial HQ and Combined Fleet HQ (1): Before Outbreak of Pacific War. (1971)
46 Kaijo boei sen: Surface Defensive Actions. (1971)
Also translated as The Maritime Protection War, and Naval Operations for Convoy Escort.
47 Assault on Hong Kong and Chang Sha (1941). (1971)
48 Sho-go Army Air Operations in Philippines. (1971)
49 Nantoo hoomen kaigun sakusen: Southeast Area Naval Actions Until Guadalcanal Reinforcement. (1971)
50 Hokushi no chiansen (pt.2): The security fights in North China
51 Plan and Preparation for Defense of Japan’s Homeland (1): Defense of Kanto District. (1971)
52 Armament and Employment of Army Air Force (1): To the Initial Phase of 1934. (1971)
53 Army Air Operations in Manchuria. (1972)
54 Nansei homen kaigun sakusen: Dai Ni-Dan sakusen irai: Southwestern Area Naval Operations: From Second Phase Operations Onwards. (1972)
55 Operations by China Expeditionary HQ in 1942 and 1943. (1972)
56 Kaigun Sho-go sakusen Fuirippin oki kaisen (1): SHO-Go Naval Operations: The Naval Battle of the Philippine Sea (1). (1970)
57 Hondo kessen jumbi: Kyushu no boei (2): Preparations for the Decisive Battle of the Homeland: Defense of Kyushu (2). (1972)
58 Minami Taiheiyo rikugun sakusen: Fuinshehaahen-Tsurubu-Tarokina (4): Army Operations in South Pacific: Finschhafen-Tsurubu-Tarokina (4). (1973)
59 Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial HQ (4): To August 1942. (1972)
60 Sho-go rikugun sakusen: Ruson kessen (2): Sho-Go ground operations: The Decisive Battle of Luzon (2). (1972)
61 Offensive of Third Army Air Force in Burma and Dutch East Indies. (1972)
62 Chuubu taiheiyoo hoomen kaigun sakusen (2): Central Pacific Area Naval Operations (2) (after June 1942). 1973)
63 Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial HQ (5): August to December 1942. (1973)
64 Operations by China Expeditionary HQ in 1945 (2): March 1945 to the End of the War. (1973)
65 Army Branch of IGHQ: Circumstances Surrounding the Outbreak of Greater East Asian War (1). (1973)
66 Daihonei rikugunbu (6): Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial Headquarters (6): Before June 1943. (1973)
67 Daihonei rikugunbu (7): Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial Headquarters (7): From December 1943 to July 1944. (1973)
68 Army Branch of IGHQ: Circumstances Surrounding the Outbreak of Greater East Asian War (2). (1973)
69 Army Branch of IGHQ: Circumstances Surrounding the Outbreak of Greater East Asian War (3). (1973)
70 Army Branch of IGHQ: Circumstances Surrounding the Outbreak of Greater East Asian War (4). (1974)
71 Conduct of Navy Operations by Imperial HQ and Combined Fleet HQ (5): Middle Part of Third Phase Operation. (1974)
72 Naval Operations in China Area (1): Before April 1938. (1974)
73 Kwantung Army (2): Prewar Preparation Against USSR and Defense at End of War. (1974)
74 Offensive Operations of Army Air Force in China. (1974)
75 Daihon’ei rikugunbu: Showa 19 nen 7 gatsu made (8): Imperial General HQ: to July 1944 (8). (1974)
76 Army Branch of IGHQ: Circumstances Surrounding the Outbreak of Greater East Asian War (5). (1974)
77 Conduct of Navy Operations by Imperial HQ and Combined Fleet HQ (3): Before February 1943. (1974)
78 Armament and Employment of Army Air Force (2): 1934 to Beginning of 1942. (1974) This volume was co-authored by Masao MATSUDA and Makoto IKUTA – the two volumes give a comprehensive overview of the organizational development of the JAAF, its administrative system, its structure and its relationship to government agencies and schools in both peacetime and wartime. JAAF doctrine, tactics and planning are examined and then related to wartime operations.
79 Naval Operations in China Area (2): After 1938. (1975)
80 Conduct of Navy Operations by Imperial HQ and Combined Fleet HQ (2): Before June 1942, (1975)
81 Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial HQ (9): Before January 1945. (1975)
82 Conduct of Army Operations by Imperial Headquarters (10): Before August 1945. (1975)
83 Nantoo hoomen kaigun sakusen: Southeast Area Naval Operations Until Guadalcanal Evacuation. (1975)
84 Minami Taiheiyo rikugun sakusen: Aitape-Puriaka-Rabaaru (5): Army Operations in the South Pacific: Aitape-Empress Augusta Bay-Rabaul (5). (1973)
85 Hondo homen kaigun sakusen: Homeland Area Naval Operations. (1975)
86 Army Operations in the China Incident (1): Before January 1938. (1975)
87 Development, Production, and Supply of Army Aviation Weapons. (1975)
88 War Preparations of Imperial Navy (2): After Outbreak of Pacific War. (1975)
89 Army Operations in the China Incident (2): Before September 1939. (1976)
90 Army Operations in the China Incident (3): Before December 1941. (1975)
(Note: volume number in question).
91 Conduct of Navy Operations by Imperial HQ and Combined Fleet HQ (6): Final Part of Third Phase Operation. (1975)
92 Army Operations in Southern Theater: Defense of Malaya and Dutch East Indies. (1976)
93 Conduct of Navy Operations by Imperial HQ and Combined Fleet HQ (7): Ending the Pacific War. (1976)
94 Armament and Employment of Army Air Force (3): 1942 Until the End of the War. (1974). This is the second volume co-authored by Masao MATSUDA and Makoto IKUTA – the two volumes give a comprehensive overview of the organizational development of the JAAF, its administrative system, its structure and its relationship to government agencies and schools in both peacetime and wartime. JAAF doctrine, tactics and planning are examined and then related to wartime operations.
95 History of the Naval Aviation Corps. (1976) Authored by Hiroshi TSUNODA, Gentaro MORIYAMA and Hideo MINEMATSU – covers the aircraft, armament, technology, training and operations of the JNAF with special emphasis on its role at the beginning of the Pacific War and the causes behind its subsequent rapid decline.
96 Nanto homen kaigun sakusen (3): Gato Tesshu-Go: Southeastern Area Naval Operations (3): After Withdrawal from Guadalcanal. (1976)
97 Construction and Use of Bases for the Army Air Force’s Operations. (1979) Co-authored by Takeshi KISHI and Shichiro TAKASE – covers the construction of airfields, logistics, maintenance, air transport, intelligence, and communications activities of the JAAF during the Great East Asia War.
98 Sensuikan shi: History of Submarines. (1979)
99 The Army’s Armaments and War Preparations. (1979)
100 Daihonei Kaigumbu: Daitoa Senso Kaisen Keii (1): Imperial General HQ, Naval Section: Circumstances of the Outbreak of the Greater East Asian War (1). (1979)
101 Daihonei Kaigumbu: Daitoa Senso Kaisen Keii (2): Imperial General HQ, Naval Section: Circumstances of the Outbreak of the Greater East Asian War (2). (1979)
102 A Chronological Table of the Army and Navy. (1979)
Confusingly, there are several official Canadian histories, published by various authors. All books can be found the Book can be found online at the Canadian Army Heritage Website.
The following body of works constitutes the Canadian historiography for the First World War:
- Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War: Candian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919, by G.W.L., Duhamel Nicholson, published by Queen’s Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa. On 621 pages, plates, sketches and maps the book covers the part played by the Canadian Expeditionary Force on the Western Front in France.
- Official History of The Canadian Forces in the Great War, 1914-1919, Vol I Part 1: General Series :From the Outbreak of War to the Formation of the Canadian Corps, August 1914-September 1915. Volume I published in two parts. by A.F. Duguid, published by King’s Printer, Ottawa
Note: Part 2 Chronology, Appendices and Maps was never translated and therefore available only in English. Vol I, Part 1, also published in french under the title: HISTOIRE OFFICIELLE DE L’ARMEE CANADIENNE DANS LA GRANDE GUERRE 1914-1919, TOME 1, PARTIE 1,
- Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War, 1914-1919, Vol I Part 2: General Series : From the Outbreak of War to the Formation of the Canadian Corps, August 1914-September 1915. by A.F. Duguid, Published by authority of the Minister of National Defence. Volume I published in two parts. Part 2 Chronology, Appendices and Maps was never translated and therefore available only in English.
- The C.A.M.C. with the Canadian Corps during the Last Hundred Days of the Great War. by A.E. Snell, published by F.A. Acland, King’s Printer, Ottawa
- Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War: The Medical Services, by Sir Andrew Macphail, published by F.A. Acland, King’s Printer, Ottawa
No full official account of New Zealand’s participation in the First World War was ever published. Only four official volumes were published (1919-1923), and they were written by senior officers who had fought in the campaigns (Gallipoli, Sinai/Palestine, Western Front) but who generally had no training as historians. A useful summary on the genesis of the offical history can be found at Wikipedia.
Although providing detailed accounts of the fighting on the battlefields itself, they did not describe New Zealand during the war, its economy, politics or society, and the home-defence and patriotic efforts, New Zealanders in the naval or air war, and those serving with other British or Australian forces are not included. Despite this, the four official histories became accepted sources for New Zealand’s military effort in the Great War, and have never been updated or superseded.
The official history of the New Zealand Forces was written up in four volumes.
Additionally, the following volumes can be found at the New Zealand Electronic Text Foundation as official histories, which I presume constitutes some kind of endorsement as “official” works.
- The Kia ora coo-ee : the magazine for the ANZACS in the Middle East, 1918
- ‘Something of Them Is Here Recorded’: Official History in New Zealandby Ian Callum McGibbon
- The Story of Two Campaigns: Official War History of the Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment, 1914-1919 by Sergeant Charles Gordon Nicol
- Official War History of the Wellington Mounted Rifles Regiment 1914-1919 by Major Alexander Herbert Wilkie
- The History of the Canterbury Mounted Rifles 1914-1919 by Lieutenant Colonel Charles Guy Powles
- Official History of the Otago Regiment, N.Z.E.F. in the Great War 1914-1918 by Lieutenant Arthur Emmett Byrne
- The Auckland Regiment by Second Lieutenant Ormond Edward Burton
- The History of the Canterbury Regiment, N.Z.E.F. 1914 – 1919 by Captain David Ferguson
- The Wellington Regiment (NZEF) 1914 – 1919 by Major General William Henry Cunningham, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Archibald Lawrance Treadwell, Lieutenant James Sugden Hanna
- The Official History of the New Zealand Rifle Brigade by Lieutenant-Colonel William Semmens Austin
- Official History of the New Zealand Engineers During the Great War 1914-1919.
- With the Machine Gunners in France and Palestine by Major John Hector Luxford
- Regimental History of New Zealand Cyclist Corps in The Great War 1914-1918 by Officers of the New Zealand Cyclists Corp
- New Zealand Artillery in the Field, 1914-18 by Lieutenant John Richard Byrne
- The Maoris in the Great War by James Cowan
- The Samoa (N.Z.) Expeditionary Force 1914–1915 by Sergeant Stephen John Smith
- The New Zealand Medical Service in the Great War 1914-1918 by Andrew Dillon Carbery
- With the Trench Mortars in France by Lieutenant William Esmonde Lennox Napier
- With the Cameliers in Palestine by Sergeant John Robertson
- Ways and By-Ways of a Singing Kiwi with the N.Z. Divisional Entertainers in France by William Ernest McKinlay
- The Mounted Riflemen in Sinai and Palestine: The Story of New Zealand’s Crusaders by Lieutenant Arthur Briscoe Moore
- Armageddon or Calvary: The Conscientious Objectors of New Zealand and “The Process of Their Conversion” by Henry Edmund Holland
- The Silent Division: New Zealanders at the Front, 1914-1919 by Second Lieutenant Ormond Edward Burton
- Historic Trentham, 1914-1917: The Story of a New Zealand Military Training Camp, and Some Account of the Daily Round of the Troops within Its Bounds by Will Lawson
- Gallipoli Diary by Major Edward Percy Cox
The Italian Army published its official history between 1927 and 1988 – interrupted by the Second World War – under the title of “L’Esercito Italiano nella Grande Guerra 1915-1918” (“The Italian Army in the Great War 1915-1918”). The history stretches over seven volumes divided into 37 books and is accompanied by panoramic sketches, topographical maps and task orders, comprising about 17,000 pages. Of particular interest to researchers and scholars is a synthesis of combat unit diaries written during the war.
The first three volumes are availabe at the Italian Ministry of Defense’s website, unfortunately only as a page viewer and not as a PDF:
Le Forze Belligeranti – vol.I – covers belligerent forces
Le Forze Belligeranti – vol. I-bis
Le Operzioni del 1915 – vol. II-1 – The 1915 operations
Le Operazioni del 1915 – vol. II-2
Le Operzioni del 1916 – vol. III book 1-1 – The 1916 Operations
Le Operazioni del 1916 – vol. III book 1-2
Le Operazioni del 1916 – vol. III book 2-1
Le Operazioni del 1916 – vol. III book 2-2
Le Operazioni del 1916 – vol. III book 3-1
Le operazioni del 1916 – vol. III book 3-2
Volume IV: The war in 1917
Volume V: The war in 1918.
Volume VI: Instructions of tactics
Volume VII: Operations outside the national territory: Albania, Macedonia and the Middle East.
A testament to the dedication and loaylty of the community. There, I always wanted to write such a sentence, and today I honestly have a reason for it: Robert, a member of the Europa mailing list, assembled a TW playtest set by using the TW maps and counters, and updating the FitE-rule set to modern Europa standards. His report of his solitaire game can be found at tw17playtest.blogspot.de, and it would have made Winston proud.