The General Staff Archives

Europa Games and Military History

Author: Ken Newall (page 1 of 10)

1941 NOV I Axis Turn

No! not one step back, those are my orders!  The commanders of any unit which retreats will face the firing squad!”

“But Mein Fuhrer!” protests the assembled top brass at the Wolf’s Lair situation table, “We have lost contact with an entire corps who are very low on supplies and we fear are surrounded. The Bolsheviks have already overrun the 17th. Now the 1st, 11th, 17th, 5th and 29 Mot div are cut off.”

Cowards! they have no backbone!  They should stand and die for the Fatherland!

But mein Fuhrer! they may short of supplies but I assure you they are not on short of National Socialist Fervour!

Guderian leans forward over the situation map, “If I may, Mein Fuhrer, we can break the Soviet line here at Podolsk and demonstrate once again our superiority of arms and will.   I have the 24th Panzer division with artillery support and infantry divisions”, Guderian’s hand hovers over the map then jabs at a spot 20 miles North West of Podolsk,  “here,  awaiting your orders.”

“The corps to the East will strike from behind, eliminating anything in their path and join with the 24th from the West. We cannot fail to smash the line and link up with the missing corps and secure our position.

Hitler studies the map and ponders for a second. “Permission granted – but do not ask again.”

Finland: The Finish front after months of relative inactivity bursts into life. The arrival of a German infantry division marching overland from the Helsinki front, a fresh replacement division and a reserve infantry division released now that the Soviet 20th Mech  is made impotent by the mud, allows the Fins to launch a massed attack against the south anchor of the soviet line on the north shore of lake Ladoga eliminating the stack.

Further north an Army of Norway attack wastes precious resources pushing back a lone bdr regiment while in the centre a soviet winterised regiment is eliminated.

AGN: AGN is transferred responsibility of all action south from the Baltic coast to the lakes north of Moscow. This will allow co-ordinated action to eliminate resistance between Dno and Kalinin.

The mixed armour and infantry assault through the Valdai cannot progress further East but continues to enlarge the foothold on the Moscow Leningrad rail line.

Similarly the penetration of the Soviet line just north of Kalinin is also stalled in it’s Eastern advance and is content to widen the breach.

The southern tip of the line is nibbled further to widen the bulge between Moscow and the lakes to the north.

In all 4 hexes and 3 forts are gained/eliminated as the out of supply Soviets around Kalinin weaken.

SE AAR No1 - 1941 Nov I Axis Exploitation

SE AAR No1 – 1941 Nov I Axis Exploitation at AG North

AGC: The panzers north of the Soviet link up to Moscow pull back northwest 2 hexes to consolidate. They hold there as supplies are moving west and they are only a month away from full supply with trucks available to fill the gap.

To the south the cut off corps realise that they cannot hope to survive as the Soviet troops mass and close. They thus move west eliminating a lone Soviet mountain division caught in their path. In a surprise move the 24thPanzer with fresh infantry and artillery support eliminates a soviet fort in the MLR just north of Podolsk and pushes through to link with the beleaguered panzers. Still unsupplied the nemesis of elimination from isolation is averted.

Further south around Tula other stragglers from the bold but over extended German advance manage to reach the main lines and all formations are accounted for.

SE AAR No1 - 1941 Nov I Axis Exploitation

SE AAR No1 – 1941 Nov I Axis Explitation at AG Center

AGS: Minor actions up and down the line keep pressure on the soviet replacement system by eliminating a couple of stacks where targets of opportunity present themselves. One such is the elimination of the Orel garrison and the city’s capture.

The Soviets outside Kharkov are eliminated and a tight ring around the city established. Still unsupplied the Axis await rail conversion, supplies and rail guns before considering an assault.

Axis forces eliminate the garrison at Zaporizhzhia and capture the city, leaving Kharkov as the only island of resistance west of the Soviet main line.

11th Army; The Axis manage to breach the line at the neck of the Crimea but exploitation is minimal simply encircling a stack in the front line and pinning them against the sivash.

With reinforcing cavalry divisions crossing the Kerch straights the Axis realise that the resources allocated to the 11th army are not sufficient and make preparations to reinforce this sector.

SE AAR No1 - 1941 Nov I Axis Explitation

SE AAR No1 – 1941 Nov I Axis Explitation at 11th Army

Battle Report:

Attacks: Auto eliminations = 6.   Diced combats = 7
Losses: Soviet Isolated = 36, Un-isolated = 42.
Germans = 7 (Cadred Infantry division and rocket regiment in an exchange)

1941 OCT II Soviet Turn

The conference room in the Kremlin is thick with cigarette smoke, sweat and desperation.

The top officers are huddled near the large wooden doors at the end of the room.  A mid ranking staff officer has his ear to the door.

Kliment Voroshilov, the defence minister enters and marches forward. Any of you girls gathered up enough courage to knock yet? He demands.

“Not me” answers Mikoloyan the trade minister. “The Boss is still in his chambers no one has seen him for three days now.”

“Berea, can’t you go in, you have his ear”.  “No comrade, I may have his ear but he would just as soon have my head!.”

“Zhukov what news from your new command in the North?”;  “My orders are to hold so hold I have. Not a step back but the fascists are pushing to the north and south of Kalinin. “

“How can I mount an attack with no reserves and everyone in the front line?”

“Well I have moved some forces forward to engage the fascists south of Tula”, Timoshenko adds “but like you we have few reserves and dare not thin the main line too much that would be suicide both militarily and dare I say personally.”

Suddenly the conversation is halted by the rattling of locks and the large wooden doors at the end of the conference room swing open. Comrade Stalin advances, tired and dishevelled but with determination in his eyes.

“Gentlemen my most reliable officer general Rasputitsa has arrived and achieved what you did not. He has halted the enemy advance East of Moscow.”

“Is the line elsewhere held?”

“Yes comrade” the assembled officers cry in unison.

“Then the time to strike has come. Fresh troops have been arriving which I have held for this attack They are now yours, use them wisely.

Don’t disappoint me, the gulags are a lot emptier than in ’36 so there is plenty of space for failures.”

Finland: Fresh troops bolster the line at Murmansk.

The Soviet 11th Mech corps pulls back to the line by the lakes which is now stabilised.

Leningrad: To the south fresh troops are fed into the shells around the two small bulges across the Leningrad /Kalinin rail line but cannot yet mount an effective counter attack.

Moscow: A succession of localised counter attacks are mounted against the German defence ring around the city.

Here and further south a succession of 1s and 2s on the dice rolls give very disappointing results with a total of 1x AR, 3xNE, 1xDR and only two DEs and a HX.. The one big success is against 17th Panzer, just south of the capital, which is reduced to a cadre and the city is again relieved from isolation.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 Oct II 41 Soviet Turn

SE AAR 01 – 1941 Oct II 41 Soviet Turn

Voroshilovgrad:  The forces which surged west attack an SS Motorised division but simply push this unit back and fail to achieve any meaningful results.

Around Tula however some support troops are eliminated and further penetrations break the German line into two sections.

Kharkov; is surrounded but freshly raised troops take advantage of a small gap in the ring around the city to form a defence hex adjacent to the city. (no doubt short-lived)

South/Crimea: The line holds and continues to fortify awaiting the arrival of the Axis forces.

Losses: Soviet: = 6

Axis Non Isolated =10; Isolated =  6.

1941 OCT II Axis Turn

Weather: A&B  = Mud, C,D,G =  Clear.

Finland; Offensive operations grind to a halt in the far North for lack of supplies. The Kreigsmarine ferry more across the Baltic for railing to the front.

A standoff continues further south.

AGN Unable to progress further over the railine in the face of Guards division entering the Soviet line the Germans simply widen their grip on the Valdai by a DH on a weak Soviet stack.

Just north of Kalinin a pure infantry/artillery assault pushes one hex further East towards the rail line from the East to the forested junction NW of the city.

AGC; Mired up to their axils the Panzers just manage to destroy the Soviet force holding the supply line to Moscow open and Moscow is Isolated for a second time.

Forces further West reach Bryansk in force and destroy the token resistance left in the fortified city.

Orel is now the only city in the sector west of the front line still in Soviet hands.

AGS The majority of the Panzers are stuck East of the Moscow/Tula fortified line as each side plays “isolate and relieve” with the other. The mud in sector B has frustrated any attempt at supplying the units who try to maintain contact and pull back to a tighter line.

Mobile and infantry units move as fast as they can north to re-establish contact and manage to eliminate 2/3rds of the Soviet blocking force which had been thrown across the breach.

Kharkov is again surrounded but now with a ring of continuous divisions. Infantry and artillery move into position but per the Fuhrer’s Directive make no attempt to storm the city.

Dnepropetrovsk falls.

11th Army: The arrival of the Rumanian Armoured division allows the Axis to attempt to breach the Soviet defence at the neck of the Crimea but the defenders earn their pay by retreating in good order and maintaining the line preventing a breakthrough to the interior.

Despite a pounding from the Luftwaffe which inflicted hits on most of the Black Sea fleet the ships still ferry supplies to Odessa which remains unassailable.

Attacks: Auto Elim = 9, diced for = 4

Losses; Isolated = 28. Unisolated = 20. Axis = 0.

1941 OCT I Soviet Turn

The autumn (fall) rains bring relief to the Soviet Armies struggling to contain the mass of Axis armour thrusting around Moscow.

Finland: All quiet on this front as parity of numbers means that neither side feels confident to attack.

Leningrad; The lone Luft AA unit is overrun and  other units rush past to bock the Axis advance but are not in sufficient strength to mount any form of counter attack against either of the breaches North of Kallinin.

Moscow; The Soviets infiltrate through the 16 mile gap East of Moscow and re-establish supply to the beleaguered city. Fresh troops rush in from the East but do not close waiting for numbers to increase.

The main line to Tula does not waver – holding position.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 Oct II 41 Soviet Turn

SE AAR 01 – 1941 Oct II 41 Soviet Turn

Voronezh; In a bold move the entire Soviet line from a point roughly East of Kharkov to the tip of the German breach moves NorthWEST seeking to close the gap and engage the weak German defenders on the flanks of the penetration. The weather is still clear in the South so they move cautiously trying to stay out of range of the bulk of the Axis infantry marching East from Kiev.

The line cadres an impudent 6-8 light infantry ahead of the German pack and mops up 20 points of mobile support troops. A weak line is thrown across the breach to cut the German spearhead from supply.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 Oct I 41 Soviet Counterattack

SE AAR 01 – 1941 Oct I 41 Soviet Counterattack

Crimea: The Crimea is held at the Shivash as cavalry from the Trans Caucuses drip feeds across the Kerch straights to reinforce the defenders.

Losses: Axis Non isolated 24.

1941 OCT I Axis Turn

Hans Gruber scans the distance through his Zeiss optics.  His black tankers uniform is a dull brown from the dust of the steppe; that same dust covering his improvised facemask and turning his hair the colour and texture of straw.

His attention is caught by a chevron of shapes cresting a hill with a scattering of birch in the mid-distance.

“Armour piercing!” He yells to the gunner below. “Five remaining” is the reply. Damit, that engagement two days ago had taken its toll, and supplies had been patchy of late. The Ruskies now seem better trained and lead and more resolute. The tanks better employed in nimble regiments, not the unwieldy divisional mass they had out manoeuvred so easily over the previous months.

As he pondered his possible fate, a trail of smoke arched up from the lead shape and drifted down in a green haze. Just at that moment the radio cracked to life.

It was a German voice “Unit to our north, unit to out north, are you receiving this?”

Could it be, yes!, they were German.  As the dots resolved themselves he saw the familiar shape of a Panzer IV.  It was a breakthrough unit from Army Group South. They had done it!  although 16 miles ahead of the main body their recon mission was accomplished.

 Moscow was surrounded!

Surely now the Russians would accept defeat and perhaps there was time for him to be sitting around his home fire with Greta and the kids for Christmas.

Then it started raining.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 OCT I Axis Combat Phase.

SE AAR 01 – 1941 OCT I Axis Combat Phase.

Finland: Despite the mist and rain the Mountain divisions of Army Norway press home their attack to Murmansk forcing the 2 brigade defenders West of the river over the river/into the city.

The Fins are completely defensive on their front.

AGN: The push through the Valdai to the Mosow/Lenningrad road breaks through a Guards division cadreing it and eliminating the cadre in the exploitation phase. The Panzer/Motorized divisions decide not to exploit but sit on the trail line. A lone AA regiment moves along the rail line towards Leningrad.

An infantry attack tries to breakthrough just north of Kaliningrad and whilst the defenders evacuate their fortified defences they retire in good order stopping any exploitation by the motorized support troops.

AGC: The panzers mass into the one hex bridgehead over the Volga canal and strike at the Guards/Tank Regiment defenders who are eliminated. The cadre is overrun in the exploitation phase and the panzers reach the Gorky/Moscow road.

In the rear of this attack other units eliminate the Soviet “peninsular” south/West of the lakes on the Moscow Kalinin road.  Meanwhile the last Soviet Mech corps West of the MLR is finally eliminated.

AGS: The mass of Panzers at Kursk drive forward and slam in to the Soviet line between Tula and Voronezh ripping a 50 mile wide hole in the line and exploiting north and west. The Northernmost Panzer unit crosses the river at Kolomna and the whole soviet line between Tula and Moscow is surrounded and cut off. However the heroic Guards unit who fell defending the Volga Canal bridgehead has prevented a full link up and only an empty ZOCed hex seals the pocket East of Moscow.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 Oct I Axis Combat Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 Oct I Axis Combat Phase

11th Army: The Odessa defence is reduced to the city only and the Luftwaffe causes more damage to the fleet. The single Panzer attached to the army (U1) drives East pursuing the fleeing Soviets from the Dnieper line and with advanced infantry units eliminates the fleeing remnants. The Crimea continues to be simply contained until sufficient troops arrive to push through the bottleneck at the entrance to the region.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 OCT I Axis Exploitation Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 OCT I Axis Exploitation Phase

Attacks: Auto eliminations = 9. Diced attacks = 10

Losses: Isolated = 66;   Un-isolated = 56; Axis = 0

1941 SEP II Soviet Turn

“Georgie, you filthy swine go and loosen your bowels over the side not in the dug-out.”

“What! and let some fascist put a hole in my head while I’m squatting for the motherland!”. Anyway it smells better than you, you lice infected dog!.

 “Now then boys save your anger for the Rumanians – they will be coming soon, and take this”.

“Sargent what do we do with this? eat it or throw it at the fascists; it’s hard enough!.

“Be grateful for what you’ve got, it’s all that there is…. and clear that stinking mess up –now!”

Odessa The supplies delivered by the fleet are insufficient for the troops defending the perimeter. Dysentery and malnutrition sweep the ranks and claim 4 divisions and 5 support units; almost half of the entire garrison!

Moscow: Newly raised Guard units rush to contain the German breach in the line north of Moscow. The soviets evacuate the fort line south of the lakes which is almost surrounded leaving a minimal garrison to staunch the flow of German infantry reaching the front. The main line is reformed east of the river.

Elsewhere; The line is organised and reinforced with newly arriving troops and the gap between Voronezh and Satlino starts to solidify. The stay behind garrison at Bryansk is thinned as the demand for troops at the main line becomes paramount.

Soviet aircraft fly defensive support up and down the line.

The Soviets hold their breath, awaiting the expected assault south of Moscow – and those who still do; pray for rain.

1941 SEP II Axis turn

Weather: clear

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP II Axis Exploitation Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP II Axis Exploitation Phase

Finland: Despite the failure of the Finish offensive further south Army of Norway boosted by recent reinforcements continues the assault towards Murmansk and eliminates another regiment.

The Finns on the main front continue to pull back and move into forests for protection against the 10th Mech.

AGN: 1x pz and 2x Mech divisions are returned from AGC and AGN is tasked to continue the drive to the forested junction at the NE edge of the Valdai to interdict reinforcement from Leningrad to the Moscow defenders.

AGC; With winter approaching and meteorologists predicting harsh conditions AGC wastes no time in assaulting the Soviet line. The line is weaker just south of Moscow but force dispositions are such that an assault on the line between Moscow and Kalinin will achieve a better force ratio. Additionally advanced infantry units can protect the left flank in this area. Two hexes are assaulted; a heavily forested region where a lone 4-6 inf division retreats in good order preventing a breakthrough and a 16 mile gap in the fortified line where infantry, tanks and anti-tank units cave to a massed panzer assault.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP II Axis Turn

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP II Axis Turn

Here a breakthrough is achieved and units exploit to the river line and beyond.  The left flank is protected by the lakes just south of Kalinin. The right flank interdicting the north Moscow suburbs.

The edge is taken off this victory because a secondary and ultimately unnecessary assault is conducted against one of the two trapped mech corps isolated NW of Vyazma. The HX requires the reduction of a 12-10 panzer due to insufficient AECD capable Stugs to absorb the required loss.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP II Axis Exploitation Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP II Axis Exploitation Phase

AGS; Kiev falls!. Even the “persuasion” of the NKVD is not enough to withstand the German assault with the largest Luftwaffe support of the war contributing to success.  The soviet Migs, Yaks and I-16 defence force fails miserably to Patrol Attack any fighter support and the interceptors are almost entirely eliminated while attempting to get to the bomber stream – all for no effect.

Further east the greater distances, rapid w ithdrawal of the Soviet line and the expensive but effective Soviet delaying tactics prevent any assault this turn disrupting the plans for a simultaneous co-ordinated assault North and South of Moscow. Instead the Axis satisfy themselves in clearing the blockading Soviets and massing a 40 pt and 36 pt stack NE of Kursk screened by divisions and support troops and with pre-positioned truck based supplies for an assault in October.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP II Axis Turn

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP II Axis Turn

Hitler has decreed Kharkov will not be assaulted but besieged. In preparation for this the defending stack between the city and the Soviet MLR is eliminated and motorized divisions and support troops encircle the city. Dnepropetrovsk is also isolated.

11th Army: Once again the beleaguered defenders of Odessa earn their meagre pay and a large stack retreats without loss. The perimeter is sl owly shrinking but the troops are in good spirits and determined to resist to the last.

Combats: Automatic Elimination attacks = 18. Diced Attacks = 7

Losses: Isolated = 157, Un-Isolated = 19; Axis = 7

1941 SEP I Soviet Turn

Leningrad: The 10th mech continues to push into the Finnish right flank and now swings north towards Joensuu driving a Finnish 5-6 with tank support towards the city. The 10th then pauses fearful of pursuit because there is insufficient support from other Soviet forces and the commander fears encirclement.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP I Axis Combat Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP I Axis Combat Phase

In the Valdai freshly arriving troops are railed to the front and assault the 6-10 mech unit on the Dno road but the attack is stalled by the German defenders.

Moscow: Fortification and reinforcement continues along the line. The trapped mech/tank units are abandoned to their fate but air cover gives some comfort. The remaining mobile units fall back to take position behind the MLR ready to respond and counter any penetration of the line.

Kursk: With Kursk lost the whole Soviet line wheels back like a great door swinging East, pivoting on Tula and stopping at Voronezh. The Stalino line is reinforced with a combination of new troops and those marching east from the Dnieper. Only a short section of line between Voronezh to just east of Kharkov is not continuously manned. And even here it is at least Zoc’d. Those formations which cannot reach the safety of the line turn on the encircling Panzers to isolate and hinder the advance realising that their time in mother Russia is soon to come to an end.

Kiev:  Kiev prepares for the inevitable assault as does Odessa although the Black Sea fleet maintains full supply despite damage inflicted last turn from the Luftwaffe.  Along the lower Dnieper the forts so recently built are dismantled and recovered materials are shipped back to the main line. Minimal garrisons remain at Dnepropetrovsk and Zaporozhe to slow the Axis advance.. Most units fall back into the Crimea but a few screen the now U2 2nd Pz.

Kharkov; Kharkov stands alone some 80 miles forward of the line and is fully stacked with the Commissariat providing political education and resistance.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP I Axis Combat Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP I Axis Combat Phase

1941 SEP I Axis Turn

Weather: Clear

Hitler smashes his fist on the map table causing pencils and note pads to fly into the air.  “Kharkov! Kharkov! What do I want with Kharkov? Moscow is the key.”

“But Mein Fuhrer”, stutters the boldest general, “Kharkov is vulnerable now, with Kharkov we unlock the south and eliminate the supplies to Kiev.”

“The Luftwaffe will deal with the supply transports.”  What do I need with another city?  I would rather capture an army than a city. Moscow is the key! Moscow is where Stalin will defend!  Moscow is where he will gather his forces and Moscow is where I will crush him!.

Dismissed!

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP I Axis Exploitation Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP I Axis Exploitation Phase

Finnish Front; Army of Norway anticipating a cut off Murmansk advances and penetrates the soviet river defence line. The Fins however withdraw from the Murmansk/Moscow rail line due to the continued attacks from 10th Mech and the arrival of a Tank division from the north.

AGN/AGC; The Soviet mech divisions moving slowly East, blocking infantry from Moscow and Harassment attacks from the air successfully prevent an attack on the Soviet MLR because the panzers cannot reach the line in sufficient force to mount a credible attack. Instead they turn back to trap the Mech and eliminate the infantry units.  To further unsettle the Soviets a mech division penetrates the Valdai to block the Kalinin/Dno Rail line.

The fortified redoubt in the river bend immediately SE of Orsha as a result of accurate AA fire against both Ground Support and a bombing mission to sink the River Flotilla reduces the anticipated odds from 6:1 to 5.96:1 and survives the assault.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP I Axis Exploitation Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP I Axis Exploitation Phase

AGS: Here is a different story. Other than some isolated stragglers the Germans face an open expanse of steppe with only Kharkov as an island of resistance between Kursk and Dnepropetrovsk. There is a great temptation to surround the major southern city while vulnerable but in the end the panzers swing north to roll up the southern soviet line which is hanging in mid air. NKVD political troops almost prevent the fall of Kursk but the 3-6 remaining after a DH result is overrun in the exploitation phase and panzers move to the North and East of the MLR to hinder any general retreat East. Unfortunately there is no Truck accompaniment so continued good weather is vital to prevent a dangerous backlash from the Soviets. Time will tell.

In the West two of the three inner forts at Kiev are eliminated and It is hoped Kiev will fall Sept II. The air-bridge is supplying 8 REs of units at the moment so around two thirds of the defenders will diceing for elimination and survivors will be half strength.

SE AAR 01 - 1941 SEP I Axis Exploitation Phase

SE AAR 01 – 1941 SEP I Axis Exploitation Phase

11th Army; Odessa remains defiant as a large stack with Naval Gunfire Support retreats in good order into the city.

Mech units re-cross the lower Dnieper to free the trapped U1 2nd Panzer which then moves East to maintain the blockade of the Crimea trusting the Soviets will not counter attack for fear of becoming trapped and eliminated in turn.

Combats: Automatic Elimination attacks = 14. Diced Attacks = 6

Losses: Isolated = 120, Un-Isolated = 14;  Axis = 9.

1941 AUG II Soviet Turn

Leningrad: The10th Mech continues to drive into the Finnish flank and cadres another 5-6.

Moscow; The free mech forces fall back to the Moscow Defence line and are replaced by a thin screen of units designed to slow the advance. Trapped mech exfiltrates back into supply.

Smolensk: The trapped units coalesce into the remaining forts and cities to form islands of resistance or fall back East where they can surround the panzers to fragment the German encirclement. A line forms from a fort in the river bend south of Orsha to the wood/swaps East of Smolensk from fleeing remnants to attempt to block further forces from the German’s Moscow drive moving south.

Kiev: Trapped mech with infantry from outside the pocket attempt a breakout by counter attacking a 6-10/Stug stack but are repulsed.  Other forces flee east and south.  The powerful mech force inside the Kiev pocket and supplied by the air-bridge from Kharkov attacks a 8-6 infantry division but only achieves a retreat.  A 7-4-8 Tank advances to interdict the German supply line to the south of the city.

Odessa; The pocket is supplied by sea.  Forces along the lower Dnieper eliminate the lone 2-10 luft AA to the south of the river and reform the line trapping the Panzer unit threatening the Crimea.

Interior; The MLR is increasingly manned and fortified. It runs complete from Narva to Moscow except for a couple of open hexes in the Valdai then south to Kursk. Here the line ends and there is a wide gap to Dnepropetrovsk except for Kharkov and a manned hex either side. From Dnepropetrovsk the line follows the river to the coast.

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